Water purification is a process in which removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases are removed from the water so that it is fit for human consumption. The ultimate goal is to produce water that is fit for different purposes. Water purification and disinfestations are initially used for making the water suitable for drinking. But the cleaning of water is necessary for other uses also; for example pharmacological, industrial, medical and chemical applications. The purification can be done through specific physical procedures like filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; other biological processes include slow sand filtration or biologically active carbon — a chemical process like flocculation or chlorination and also the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
Water purification system may reduce the concentration value of the particulate matter. This particulate matter includes suspended particles, bacteria, parasites, algae, viruses, and fungus. It also reduces a lot of dissolved and particulate matter.
The standard of drinking quality water is set by different government bodies and by international agencies. The criteria usually include minimum to the maximum indulgence of contaminants depending upon the classified use of the water. RO Care India deals in all kinds of water purifier technologies including most recent and advanced ones.
The physical examination cannot determine the quality of the water sample. Domestic procedures such as boiling or the use of active household carbon are not adequate to treat all contaminants that are present in the water that comes from an unknown source. In the 19th century, natural spring water was considered safe for all domestic purposes. Nowadays, we can use it also, but it’s advised to test it before determining the necessary treatment to be used to purify it. It can be a chemical treatment or a microbiological analysis. These tests are costly and the only methods to determine the intensity of a particular purification method.
As per a World Health Organisation (WHO) report, about a billion people are devoid of improved drinking water supply. 88% of the 4 billion annual cases suffer from diarrhea that is attributed to unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene. About 1.8 million people die each year due to diarrhea. According to the WHO, it states that 94% of these diarrhea cases could have been prevented if proper steps for water purification had been taken. There are simple techniques for getting pure water at home like chlorination, filters, and solar disinfectants and then store it in safe water containers. This could save several lives in the world each year, and several casualties can be avoided. Using technology can help us in reducing the death toll of millions of innocent people throughout the world in developed as well as in the underdeveloped countries.
First of all, let us take a look at the sources of water that are available to us
The water that we get from underground sources may have accumulated due to hundreds of years of rainfall or maybe thousands of years of rain. Natural layers of rocks automatically filter this water, sand, stones, and soil. Many times this water does not need additional filtration beside adding chlorine or chloramines as disinfectants. Such water may emerge to the surface of the earth as a spring or artesian springs, or it can be acquired through bore wells or wells. This water can have a very high bacterial quality. Pathogenic bacteria or the pathogenic protozoa are generally absent, but the water could be rich in dissolved minerals, like carbonates or sulfates of calcium and magnesium.
Upland Lakes And Reservoirs
Usually located in the heads of river systems, they are often situated above any human civilization and may be surrounded by a protective zone that protects it from the contamination. In such water, pathogens and bacteria related contamination is usually absent. But some extent of such impurities might still be present. The uplands are forested or petty; humid acids can color the water. In this water, the pH level is also deficient as per the required standards, and this needs to be corrected.
Rivers And Canals
Also low lying reservoirs, this will have a certain amount of significant bacterial load and may also contain algae. They may also be contaminated by suspended particulate and a host of dissolved constituents.
Atmospheric Water Generation
This new technology can provide high-quality drinking water by harvesting water from the air by cooling the air and using of condensation process of the water vapor present in the atmosphere.
Rainwater Harvesting Or Fog Collection
In this process, the water collected from the atmosphere can be utilized, especially during the dry season and also in areas where there is a lot of fog despite very little rain.
Many freshwater bodies are left open to the air and atmosphere. These are not designated as groundwater but as surface waters.
Goals Of Technology
The ultimate goal is to treat the water from different sources using the latest technologies so that 100 pure drinking water can be made available to the population across the globe and many untimely deaths can be averted. We also need clean water for our industry and pharmaceutical companies for their specific use in the service of humankind. Widely varied techniques are available to remove impurities like fine solids, micro-organisms and dissolved inorganic and organic materials. The choice of the purification technique depends on the scale of impurity present in the given sample of water. The higher the scale of the impurity, the tougher the technology used.
We have many technologies which we use in the purification of water. In modern times the technology has come to the aid of the human being, and now technology can purify the water into a healthy and pure drink. But still, this field needs a lot of improvement so that every human is provided with at least of his requirement of pure and healthy drinking water. It is essential for us to preserve the water as much as we can and come up with the idea to avail clean water to everyone.